This course is a comprehensive study of the interrelationship amongst plants, animals and their environment during winter. It examines the significance of energy exchange, light spectra, photoperiod and the reciprocal relationships that exist between water, ice and snow and biotic community structure and composition. Other topics include anatomical and physiological adaptations, nutrient sources and predator-prey interactions. Techniques are emphasized and tested experimentally under field conditions. PREREQ: Instructor's permission. (lec 3, lab 3) cr 3.